What is it?
Typhoid fever is an infection that is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. It is common in developing countries with poor sanitation and low standards of hygiene.
What is my risk?
Travelers to Asia, Africa, and Latin America are especially at risk.
In regions where typhoid occurs, your risk is higher if travelling to areas with poor sanitation and limited access to safe water and/or if you are visiting friends and relatives. About 300 people get typhoid fever in the United States each year, and most of these people have recently traveled. About 22 million cases of typhoid fever and 200,000 related deaths occur worldwide each year.
How is it transmitted?
Typhoid is most often transmitted by eating food or drinking water that has been contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Examples include:
Eating food or drinking beverages that have been handled by a person who is infected.
Drinking water that has been contaminated with sewage.
Eating shellfish taken from sewage-polluted areas, or eating raw fruits and vegetables, which may have been fertilized with human waste.
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms usually appear one to three weeks after being infected.
Some people develop no symptoms, while others may develop symptoms such as fever, headache, constipation or diarrhea, fatigue, and loss of appetite.
In more severe cases, symptoms may worsen and cause life threatening complications such as enlargement of the liver and spleen or intestinal bleeding.
Can it be treated?
Typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics.
How can I prevent it?
Get vaccinated (Typhoid vaccine is only 50%-80% effective, so you should still be careful about what you eat and drink. )
Practice safe food and water precautions
Wash your hands frequently and Try to avoid close contact, such as kissing, hugging, or sharing eating utensils or cups with people who are sick